In 2003 the Ingula Partnership was established between Eskom, BirdLife South Africa and the Middelpunt Wetland Trust with a common conservation objective of managing the Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme as a sustainable conservation site. It is a classic example of how an industrial undertaking can be integrated within a conservation area and will hopefully provide a model for future conservation initiatives. Situated on the watershed between the Orange River in the eastern Free State and the Tugela River in KwaZulu-Natal, Ingula and its surrounding nature reserve provides a core conservation area and act as a catalyst to encourage conservation-based management principles for surrounding landowners and for socio-economic development for local communities.

Braamhoek Dam (Photo: Du Toit Malherbe)

Ingula Partnership wins the Stewardship category at the National Wetlands Awards

The Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme

The Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme was initiated by Eskom in order to supplement the national power grid during peak times. The Bedford and Braamhoek dams are connected by underground waterways passing through a subterranean powerhouse with four generators. To generate electricity during times of peak demand, water is released from Bedford Dam which is situated in the upper site and allowed to pass through the turbines into the Braamhoek Dam situated in the lower site. Situated close to the Van Reenen’s Pass, on the provincial border between the Free State and KwaZulu-Natal, the scheme spans the escarpment of the Little Drakensberg where high-altitude wetlands provide ideal habitat for, amongst others, the Critically Endangered White-winged Flufftail.

The environmental impact assessment approved the scheme, with the ROD (Record of Decision) subject to the following conditions:

  1. Eskom was to enter into a partnership agreement with a conservation NGO to ensure that the impacts were properly managed;
  2. The land obtained for the project was to be turned into a reserve on completion;
  3. All the erosion problems on the land were to be rehabilitated;
  4. All exotic fauna and flora were to be removed.

When the scheme was originally proposed, BirdLife South Africa objected because it was feared that the White-winged Flufftail habitat at this site would be forever lost. However, in ensuing negotiations with Eskom, it became evident that more could be achieved if Eskom and BirdLife South Africa were to work together on the environmental aspects of the project.

A Partnership for Conservation

Eskom has committed to funding projects and studies identified and approved by the Ingula Partnership steering committee since 2003. The Ingula Partnership steering committee is made up of primary members representing Eskom,  BirdLife South Africa (Mark Anderson and Hanneline Smit-Robinson), and the Middelpunt Wetland Trust (Malcolm Drummond). It was established to monitor and minimise the environmental impacts throughout the project construction and beyond.

Through monitoring work done by BirdLife South Africa’s on-site manager, Carina Coetzer, and her predecessors Robin Colyn and Dr David Maphisa, as well as various citizen scientist initiatives, over 330 bird species have been recorded at Ingula. These include four Critically Endangered species, the White-winged Flufftail, Wattled Crane, White-backed Vulture, and Bearded Vulture, as well as the elusive and Endangered Rudd’s Lark. A number of threatened bird species have also been observed on site with breeding records on site or in the near vicinity for most, with the exception of the White-winged Flufftail and White-backed Vulture. Through David’s participation in national atlassing projects, a very impressive list of reptiles, butterflies and plants also now exists for Ingula.

The upper Bedford wetlands are protected on the Ingula Nature Reserve as an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA), providing ideal habitat for the White-winged Flufftail, with annual surveys undertaken to monitor the species’ presence. A management plan that allows Eskom to follow best practice principles in preventing collisions and electrocutions is being developed and the power lines within and around the Ingula site are surveyed on a quarterly basis to assess for collision and electrocution mortalities. All power line related mortalities are kept in a central database and submitted to the Wildlife Energy Programme – Endangered Wildlife Trust (WEP-EWT). All lines within the property have been fitted with bird guard devices.

People of Ingula

Carina Coetzer

Since joining the BirdLife staff as Ingula Project Manager in 2017, Carina Coetzer has been largely responsible for providing scientific input into and coordinating ecological monitoring and research initiatives at Ingula. Building on previous work done by Robin Colyn, she is monitoring the breeding populations on site, and is working toward ensuring the habitat remains optimal for a variety of species through the development of a Fire and Grazing Management Plan. Furthermore, she is acting as the contact-person for the Wilge Stewardship Initiative in the Greater Wilge Catchment area, assisting the BirdLife IBA team with acquiring formal protection for this critical water area.

Robin Colyn

Robin Colyn acted as the on-site manager at Ingula during 2014-2017. While on site, he developed Species Action Plans (SAP) for a number of threatened species, including Southern Bald Ibis, Yellow-breasted Pipit, and Wattled Crane. As part of the Southern Bald Ibis Species Champion Programme, Robin annually assessed breeding colonies within the Eastern Free State to determine breeding and/or fledging success, implemented and evaluated a Southern Bald Ibis tracking initiative and coordinated species-specific environmental education. He was also responsible for developing and implementing several remote sensing tools, and initiated camera trap studies in the wetlands and escarpment forests on site.

David Maphisa

David Maphisa was the on-site manager preceding Robin Colyn. David grew up as a herd boy in Lesotho, and obtained his PhD in Statistical Science from the University of Cape Town, with a main focus on the development of an adaptive management tool for high-altitude grasslands in South Africa. He was supervised by Dr Res Altwegg (Specialist Scientist, SANBI, and a statistics expert), Prof. Les Underhill (Statistician, Animal Demography Unit, University of Cape Town) and Dr Hanneline Smit-Robinson (BirdLife South Africa). His research on the biology of Rudd’s Lark (Heteromirafra ruddi) and Botha’s Lark (Spizocorys fringillaris), and his duties in monitoring the changes in the bird community at Ingula prior to construction, was critical to the current successes.

Sakhile Mthalane

Sakhile Wiseman Mthalane assisted the BirdLife South Africa Ingula Project Manager from 2011 to 2019, with formal appointment by BirdLife South Africa in 2018. Sakhile was been trained by Dr David Maphisa in bird identification. He worked with the Ingula conservation team on site, assisting with avifaunal monitoring, fencing patrols and atlassing species on the lower and upper sites. He took up the role as a bird guide for groups visiting Ingula. His contribution was invaluable, and he has added significant value to the programme.

Species Update

A camera trap study with the aim of identifying medium to large mammal species and other bird species was initiated in 2014, with some cameras still running. A total of 27 mammalia species including, Brown Hyena, Oribi and Striped Polecat were identified using the camera trap footage.

Birds of Ingula Nature Reserve

Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus)

Given that less than 300 breeding pairs of Wattled Crane are left in the wild in South Africa, Ingula is proud to have two breeding pairs on site, as well as six individuals that are regularly seen flying over the lower site area. Observations peak during the breeding season between April and September and taper off in summer as individuals often forage outside of the Ingula boundary. However, both breeding pairs have successfully fledged a chick each during the summer breeding season of 2017/18.

In order to effectively conserve and manage this species at Ingula, Robin Colyn compiled and implemented a Species Action Plan in March 2015. The SAP addressed the ecology of the species, national and local threats, modelled optimal breeding and foraging habitat on-site at Ingula, potential territory size of breeding pairs at Ingula, as well as actions required in order to conserve the species within Ingula. Actions and recommendations were stated and prioritised according to the respective potential severity. Additionally, time-frames and resource needs per action were also addressed. On site monitoring of the species is continued according to this document.

White-bellied Korhaan (Eupodotis senegalensis)

White-bellied Korhaan are regularly observed on both the lower and upper grassland habitat types within Ingula. Observations on the lower site often yield a pair and further monitoring are being conducted to determine if breeding attempts are being initiated. Furthermore, during the burning of winter firebreaks, up to five individuals have been observed utilizing recently burnt grassland.

One pair was found breeding on site after the implementation of a grazing plan on the lower site. The grazing plan is the result of a current grasslands management study, aimed at the adequate improvement of the grassland habitat to cater for a variety of the threatened species breeding on Ingula. This includes recommendations made for the fire and grazing regimes, and implementing management plans for these regimes. The improvement would not only be advantageous to White-bellied Korhaan, but also to Blue Crane, Secretarybirds, Temminck’s Courser, and Yellow-breasted Pipit, to name a few.

Yellow-breasted Pipit (Anthus chloris)

Robin Colyn initiated a priority bird breeding assessment in September 2014, which included the Vulnerable Yellow-breasted Pipit. Between November 2014 and February 2015, 23 breeding pairs were observed and mapped across the high-altitude grassland habitat present within Ingula. Additionally, a Species Action Plan for this Species was compiled in June 2015 and is being implemented since early 2016. The plan highlighted the ecological constraints and requirements of the species, national and local threats, as well as modelled optimal breeding habits on-site within Ingula. Monitoring, management and/or research actions and recommendations were stated and prioritised within an action matrix, which as part of the reserve management plan will assist in the ongoing conservation of this species at Ingula.

Secretarybird (Sagittarius serpentarius)

Two pairs and between one and three juvenile/immature birds are regularly seen throughout grassland habitat within Ingula. One pair is a known resident breeding pair, having utilised a nest structure in the Bedford area of Ingula for five consecutive years.

In October 2015, a sponsorship by Zlin Zoo in the Czech Republic allowed us to commence a camera trap study at the nest site at Ingula to gain further understanding regarding pair facilitation during incubation, prey utilization and breeding/fledging success. Although this study is completed, monitoring of the breeding pairs at Ingula is continued.

White-winged Flufftail (Sarothrura ayresi)

During December 2012 the Critically Endangered White-winged Flufftail was sighted for the first time in the Bedford Wetland at Ingula’s upper site. Eskom has committed itself to be the Species Champion of the White-winged Flufftail under BirdLife International’s Preventing Extinctions Programme. For more information on BirdLife South Africa’s efforts to save this Critically Endangered species, please click here.



Southern Bald Ibis (Geronticus calvus)

The Vulnerable Southern Bald Ibis is frequently seen in the conservation area. There are around 10 breeding pairs and six immature individuals that often roost within the area. A special programme was implemented to relocate them from their historic nesting ledges which were lost due to the construction of the upper dam. An artificial nesting ledge was constructed in 2010 in the hope of providing them with an alternative breeding site following the loss of the historical breeding site. Since relocation to the new nest site in 2016, four successful fledglings have consistently been recorded at the site, with up to 30 adults using it for roosting. During 2018 three of the four chicks were also successfully ringed from the nest. Further research and monitoring will continue to determine the breeding success and colony dynamics at this new breeding site. Further monitoring will continue to determine the breeding success at this new breeding site.

9. A long-term monitoring project for the distribution, numbers, survival and breeding success of the endemic Southern Bald Ibis across its distribution in South Africa was undertaken by Robin Colyn, and is now continued by Carina Coetzer. Visit the Southern Bald Ibis Page here.

Martial Eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus)

The Martial Eagle is observed mainly during their winter breeding season, when one pair utilises a nest site in the escarpment forest habitat within Ingula. Since finding the nest in 2014, until 2017, three breeding attempts were recorded, producing two successfully fledged juveniles.

Other bird species at Ingula

Bush Blackcap, Lemon Dove, African Crake, Cape Longclaw